Prevención y manejo del desacondicionamiento físico en el paciente hospitalizado por COVID-19

Cubierta para Prevención y manejo del desacondicionamiento físico en el paciente hospitalizado por COVID-19
Publicado
julio 14, 2020
Derechos de autor 2020 Editorial UPTC

Autores

Martha Vanessa Ortiz Calderón; Oscar Daniel Páez Pineda; Nora Edith Rodríguez Puerto; Nathalia Lucia Jaime Martínez; Maira Alejandra León Solarte

Sinopsis

Desde diciembre del 2019, en la ciudad de Wuhan, China, se identificaron numerosos casos de neumonía, denominada como COVID-19 por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Más adelante, se denominó a su agente causal como SARS-CoV-2 (síndrome respiratorio agudo severo por coronavirus-2) (1). Con el paso del tiempo y dado el creciente número de brotes en múltiples países, fue declarado como pandemia el 11 de marzo del 2020 por la OMS (2).

En relación a la severidad, la infección sintomática puede variar desde leve a crítica, siendo la mayoría de las veces leve (3–5). En un reporte del Centro Chino para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades que incluyó aproximadamente 44,500 personas con infecciones confirmadas, se estimó que el 81% correspondían a casos leves, 14% presentaron enfermedad grave y un 5% sufrió enfermedad crítica (insuficiencia respiratoria, choque o disfunción multiorgánica) que requería manejo en unidad de cuidados intensivos (6).

Capítulos

  • Capítulo 1. Desacondicionamiento físico
    Oscar Daniel Páez Pineda, Martha Vanessa Ortiz Calderón, Nora Edith Rodríguez Puerto
  • Capítulo 2. Bioseguridad
    Oscar Daniel Páez Pineda, Martha Vanessa Ortiz Calderón, Nathalia Lucia Jaime Martínez, Maira Alejandra León Solarte
  • Capítulo 3. Evaluación funcional
    Oscar Daniel Páez Pineda, Martha Vanessa Ortiz Calderón, Maira Alejandra León Solarte, Nathalia Lucia Jaime Martínez
  • Capítulo 4. Prevención y manejo del desacondicionamiento físico
    Oscar Daniel Páez Pineda, Martha Vanessa Ortiz Calderón
  • Capítulo 5. Programa de rehabilitación
    Martha Vanessa Ortiz Calderón, Oscar Daniel Páez Pineda
  • Anexos. Actividades terapéuticas

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Citas

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42. Vanpee G, Hermans G, Segers J, Gosselink R. Assessment of limb muscle strength in critically ill Patients: A systematic Review. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(3):701–11.

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44. González Seguel F, Lee Goic J, Cárcamo Ibaceta M, Blaitt Convalia A, Castillo Merino F, Et A. Functional Mobility in Mechani-cally Ventilated Critically ill Patients: An Observational Study. JSM Phys Med Rehabil [Internet]. 2017;1(2):1–7. Available from: https://www.stata.com/

45. Thomas P, Baldwin C, Bissett B, Boden I, Gosselink R, Granger CL, et al. Physiotherapy management for COVID-19 in the acute hospital setting: clinical practice recommendations. J Physiother [Internet]. 2020;66(2):73–82. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphys.2020.03.011

46. Park SH. Tools for assessing fall risk in the elderly: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Vol. 30, Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. Springer International Publishing; 2018.

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Capítulo 4

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2. Meyers TR. Preventing heel pressure ulcers and plantar flexion contractures in highrisk sedated patients. J Wound, Ostomy Cont Nurs. 2010;37(4):372–8.

3. National Institute for Health and CareExcellence NICE N. Preventing pressure ulcers in adults. 2020;(April):1–11. Available from: http://pathways.nice.org.uk/pathways/pressure-ulcers

4. Lima-Serrano M, González-Méndez MI, Martín-Castaño C, Alonso-Araujo I, Lima-Rodríguez JS. Validez predictiva y fiabilidad de la escala de Braden para valoración del riesgo de úlceras por presión en una unidad de cuidados intensivos. Med Intensiva. 2018;42(2):82–91.

5. Shi C, Bonnett LJ, Dumville JC, Cullum N. Nonblanchable erythema for predicting pressure ulcer development: a systematic review with an individual participant data meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2020;182(2):278–86.

6. Rich SE, Margolis D, Shardell M, Hawkes WG, Miller RR, Amr S, et al. Frequent manual repositioning and incidence of pressure ulcers among bed bound elderly hip fracture patients. Wound Repair Regen [Internet]. 2011;19(10):18. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3059225/

7. Bergstrom N, Horn SD, Rapp MP, Stern A, Barrett R, Watkiss M. Turning for ulcer ReductioN: A Multisite randomized clinical trial in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013;61(10):1705–13.

8. Defloor T, Bacquer D De, Grypdonck MHF. The effect of various combinations of turning and pressure reducing devices on the incidence of pressure ulcers. Int J Nurs Stud. 2005;42(1):37–46.

9. Nadukkandiyil N, Syamala S, Saleh HA, Sathian B, Ahmadi Zadeh K, Acharath Valappil S, et al. Implementation of pressure ulcer prevention and management in elderly patients: a retrospective study in tertiary care hospital in Qatar. Aging Male [Internet]. 2019;0(0):1–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/13685538.2019.1670156

10. Ajimsha MS, Gampawar N, Surendran PJ, Jacob P. Acute care physiotherapy management of COVID-19 patients in Qatar: consensus-based recommendations.
Preprints.org [Internet]. 2020;(4). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340895777_Acute_Care_Physiotherapy_Management_of_COVID-19_Patients_in_Qatar_Consensus-Based_Recommendations

11. Bamford P, Denmade C, Newmarch C, Shirley P, Singer B, Webb S, et al. Guidance For: Prone Positioning in Adult Critical Care. Intensive Care Soc [Internet]. 2019;1–39. Available from: https://www.ficm.ac.uk/sites/default/files/proning_guidance_final_002.pdf

12. Burdet L, Liaudet L, Schaller MD, Broccard AF. Bilateral breast necrosis after prone position ventilation [7]. Intensive Care Med. 2001;27(8):1435.

13. Oliveira VM, Piekala DM, Deponti GN, Batista DCR, Minossi SD, Chisté M, et al. Safe prone checklist: Construction and implementation of a tool for performing the prone maneuver. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva. 2017;29(2):131–41.

14. Goettler CE, Pryor JP, Reilly PM. Brachial plexopathy after prone positioning. Crit Care. 2002;6(6):540–2.

15. Clavet H, Hébert PC, Fergusson D, Doucette S, Trudel G. Joint contracture following prolonged stay in the intensive care unit. Cmaj. 2008;178(6):691–7.

16. Sosnowski K, Lin F, Mitchell ML, White H. Early rehabilitation in the intensive care unit: An integrative literature review. Aust Crit Care [Internet]. 2015;28(4):216–25. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aucc.2015.05.002

17. Marcantonio ER. Delirium in hospitalized older adults. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(15):1456–66.

18. National Institute for Health and CareExcellence NICE N. Delirium : prevention, diagnosis and management. 2020;(March 2019).

19. Rawal G, Yadav S, Kumar R. Post-intensive care syndrome: An overview. J Transl Intern Med. 2017;5(2):90–2.

20. Miranda Rocha AR, Martinez BP, Maldaner da Silva VZ, Forgiarini Junior LA. Early mobilization: Why, what for and how? Med Intensiva. 2017;41(7):429–36.

21. Sommers J, Engelbert RHH, Dettling-Ihnenfeldt D, Gosselink R, Spronk PE, Nollet F, et al. Physiotherapy in the intensive care unit: An evidence-based, expert driven, practical statement and rehabilitation recommendations. Clin Rehabil. 2015;29(11):1051–63.

22. Lai CC, Chou W, Chan KS, Cheng KC, Yuan KS, Chao CM, et al. Early Mobilization Reduces Duration of Mechanical Ventilation and Intensive Care Unit Stay in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure. Arch Phys Med Rehabil [Internet]. 2017;98(5):931–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2016.11.007

23. Green M, Marzano V, Leditschke IA, Mitchell I, Bissett B. Mobilization of intensive care patients: A multidisciplinary practical guide for clinicians. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2016;9:247–56.

24. Castro-Avila AC, Serón P, Fan E, Gaete M, Mickan S. Effect of early rehabilitation during intensive care unit stay on functional status: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):1–21.

25. Anekwe DE, Biswas S, Bussières A, Spahija J. Early rehabilitation reduces the likelihood of developing intensive care unit-acquired weakness: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Physiother (United Kingdom) [Internet]. 2020;107:1–10. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2019.12.004

26. Okada Y, Unoki T, Matsuishi Y, Egawa Y, Hayashida K, Inoue S. Early versus delayed mobilization for in-hospital mortality and health-related quality of life among critically ill patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Intensive Care. 2019;7(1):1–9.

27. Gruther W, Pieber K, Steiner I, Hein C, Hiesmayr JM, Paternostro-Sluga T. Can Early Rehabilitation on the General Ward after an Intensive Care Unit Stay Reduce Hospital Length of Stay in Survivors of Critical Illness?: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2017;96(9):607–15.

28. Zhang L, Hu W, Cai Z, Liu J, Wu J, Deng Y, et al. Early mobilization of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019;14(10):1–16.

29. Martínez-Velilla N, Cadore EL, Casas-Herrero, Idoate-Saralegui F, Izquierdo M. Physical activity and early rehabilitation in hospitalized elderly medical patients: Systematic review of randomized clinical trials. J Nutr Heal Aging. 2016;20(7):738–51.

30. Tipping CJ, Harrold M, Holland A, Romero L, Nisbet T, Hodgson CL. The effects of active mobilisation and rehabilitation in ICU on mortality and function: a systematic review. Intensive Care Med. 2017;43(2):171–83.

31. Fuke R, Hifumi T, Kondo Y, Hatakeyama J, Takei T, Yamakawa K, et al. Early rehabilitation to prevent postintensive care syndrome in patients with critical illness:
A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2018;8(5):1–10.

32. LIANG T. Manual de prevención y tratamiento del COVID-19. Univ Zhejiang [Internet]. 2020;1:1–68. Available from: https://pdf-intl.alicdn.com/Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment %28Standard%29-Spanish-v2.pdf

33. Lau HMC, Ng GYF, Jones AYM, Lee EWC, Siu EHK, Hui DSC. A randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of an exercise training program in patients recovering from severe acute respiratory syndrome. Aust J Physiother [Internet]. 2005;51(4):213–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0004-9514(05)70002-7

34. Hanekom S, Gosselink R, Dean E, Van Aswegen H, Roos R, Ambrosino N, et al. The development of a clinical management algorithm for early physical activity and mobilization of critically ill patients: Synthesis of evidence and expert opinion and its translation into practice. Clin Rehabil. 2011;25(9):771–87.

35. Hickmann CE, Castanares-Zapatero D, Bialais E, Dugernier J, Tordeur A, Colmant L, et al. Teamwork enables high level of early mobilization in critically ill patients. Ann Intensive Care. 2016;6(1):80.

36. Doiron, Hoffman, Beller. Early intervention (mobilization or active exercise) for critically ill adults in the intensive care unit. Cochrane Database ofSystematic Rev. 2018;(3).

37. Fontela PC, Lisboa TC, Forgiarini-Júnior LA, Friedman G. Early mobilization practices of mechanically ventilated patients: a 1-day point-prevalence study in southern Brazil. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2018;73(23):e241.

38. Sheehy L. Considerations for Postacute Rehabilitation for Survivors of COVID-19. JMIR Public Heal Surveill. 2020;6(2):e19462.

39. Thomas P, Baldwin C, Bissett B, Boden I, Gosselink R, Granger CL, et al. Physiotherapy management for COVID-19 in the acute hospital setting: clinical practice recommendations. J Physiother [Internet]. 2020;66(2):73–82. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphys.2020.03.011

40. Stiller K. Safety Issues That Should Be Considered When Mobilizing Critically Ill Patients. Crit Care Clin. 2007;23(1):35–53.


Capítulo 5

1. Sheehy L. Considerations for Postacute Rehabilitation for Survivors of COVID-19. JMIR Public Heal Surveill. 2020;6(2):e19462.

2. Ajimsha MS, Gampawar N, Surendran PJ, Jacob P. Acute care physiotherapy management of COVID-19 patients in Qatar: consensus-based recommendations.
Preprints.org [Internet]. 2020;(4). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340895777_Acute_Care_Physiotherapy_Management_of_COVID-19_Patients_in_Qatar_Consensus-Based_Recommendations

3. Green M, Marzano V, Leditschke IA, Mitchell I, Bissett B. Mobilization of intensive care patients: A multidisciplinary practical guide for clinicians. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2016;9:247–56.

4. Thomas P, Baldwin C, Bissett B, Boden I, Gosselink R, Granger CL, et al. Physiotherapy management for COVID-19 in the acute hospital setting: clinical practice recommendations. J Physiother [Internet]. 2020;66(2):73–82. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphys.2020.03.011

5. Hanekom S, Gosselink R, Dean E, Van Aswegen H, Roos R, Ambrosino N, et al. The development of a clinical management algorithm for early physical activity and mobilization of critically ill patients: Synthesis of evidence and expert opinion and its translation into practice. Clin Rehabil. 2011;25(9):771–87.

6. Tipping CJ, Harrold M, Holland A, Romero L, Nisbet T, Hodgson CL. The effects of active mobilisation and rehabilitation in ICU on mortality and function: a systematic review. Intensive Care Med. 2017;43(2):171–83.

7. World Health Organization. WHO Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 disease is suspected. 2020;(March). Available from: https://www.who.int/internal-publications-detail/clinical-management-of-severeacute-respiratory-infection-when-novel-coronavirus-(ncov)-infection-issuspected%0Ahttp://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/178529/1/WHO_MERS_Clinical_15.1_eng.pdf

8. Martínez-Velilla N, Cadore EL, Casas-Herrero, Idoate-Saralegui F, Izquierdo M. Physical activity and early rehabilitation in hospitalized elderly medical patients: Systematic review of randomized clinical trials. J Nutr Heal Aging. 2016;20(7):738–51.

9. Barker-Davies RM, O’Sullivan O, Senaratne KPP, Baker P, Cranley M, Dharm-Datta S, et al. The Stanford Hall consensus statement for post-COVID-19 rehabilitation. Br J Sports Med [Internet]. 2020;1–11. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32475821

10. Gruther W, Pieber K, Steiner I, Hein C, Hiesmayr JM, Paternostro-Sluga T. Can Early Rehabilitation on the General Ward after an Intensive Care Unit Stay Reduce Hospital Length of Stay in Survivors of Critical Illness?: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2017;96(9):607–15.

11. Lai CC, Chou W, Chan KS, Cheng KC, Yuan KS, Chao CM, et al. Early Mobilization Reduces Duration of Mechanical Ventilation and Intensive Care Unit Stay in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure. Arch Phys Med Rehabil [Internet]. 2017;98(5):931–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2016.11.007

12. Lau HMC, Ng GYF, Jones AYM, Lee EWC, Siu EHK, Hui DSC. A randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of an exercise training program in patients recovering from severe acute respiratory syndrome. Aust J Physiother [Internet]. 2005;51(4):213–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0004-9514(05)70002-7

13. Mulavara AP, Peters BT, Miller CA, Kofman IS, Reschke MF, Taylor LC, et al. Physiological and Functional Alterations after Spaceflight and Bed Rest. Vol. 50,
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2018. 1961–1980 p.

14. Sommers J, Engelbert RHH, Dettling-Ihnenfeldt D, Gosselink R, Spronk PE, Nollet F, et al. Physiotherapy in the intensive care unit: An evidence-based, expert driven, practical statement and rehabilitation recommendations. Clin Rehabil. 2015;29(11):1051–63.

15. Sosnowski K, Lin F, Mitchell ML, White H. Early rehabilitation in the intensive care unit: An integrative literature review. Aust Crit Care [Internet]. 2015;28(4):216–25. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aucc.2015.05.002

16. Castro-Avila AC, Serón P, Fan E, Gaete M, Mickan S. Effect of early rehabilitation during intensive care unit stay on functional status: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):1–21.

17. Luan X, Tian X, Zhang H, Huang R, Li N, Chen P, et al. Exercise as a prescription for patients with various diseases. J Sport Heal Sci. 2019;8(5):422–41.

18. Miranda Rocha AR, Martinez BP, Maldaner da Silva VZ, Forgiarini Junior LA. Early mobilization: Why, what for and how? Med Intensiva. 2017;41(7):429–36.

19. Zhang L, Hu W, Cai Z, Liu J, Wu J, Deng Y, et al. Early mobilization of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019;14(10):1–16.

20. LIANG T. Manual de prevención y tratamiento del COVID-19. Univ Zhejiang [Internet]. 2020;1:1–68. Available from: https://pdf-intl.alicdn.com/Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment %28Standard%29-Spanish-v2.pdf

21. Kho, M.E., Brooks, D., Namasivayam-MacDonald, A., Sangrar, R. and Vrkljan B. Rehabilitation for Patients with COVID-19. Guidance for Occupational Therapists,
Physical Therapists, Speech-Language Pathologists and Assistants. Sch Rehabil Sci McMaster Univ [Internet]. 2020;3–5. Available from: https://srs-cmaster.ca/wpcontent/uploads/2020/04/Rehabilitation-for-Patients-with-COVID-19-Apr-08-2020.pdf

22. CCTO. Lineamientos para terapia ocupacional en la rehabilitación hospitalaria de usuarios con covid-19 en colombia [Internet]. Colegio Colombiano de Terapia
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23. Mattei A, Bretèque A de la, Crestanid S, L. C-B, Galant C, Hanse S, et al. Guidelines of clinical practice for the management of swallowing disorders and recent dysphonia in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2020;137(3):173–5.

24. Brodsky MB, Nollet JL, Spronk PE, González-Fernández M. Prevalence, Pathophysiology, Diagnostic Modalities and Treatment Options for Dysphagia in
Critically Ill Patients. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2020.

25. Ibarra IN de RLGI. Guía clínica de terapia para pacientes con disfagia. Man guías clínicas. 2010;México:2–27.

26. Solazzo A, Monaco L, Del Vecchio L, Tamburrini S, Iacobellis F, Berritto D, et al. Investigation of compensatory postures with videofluoromanometry in dysphagia patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(23):2973–8.